About 110 nations back Copenhagen climate deal
The number of nations backing the non-binding Copenhagen Accord for fighting global warming has risen to about 110 and includes all major greenhouse gas emitters, according to a Reuters compilation on Friday.
The accord, reached at the December summit, sets a goal of limiting a rise in temperature to less than 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 F), but does not say how to achieve the goal. Rich nations also aim to give $100 billion a year in climate aid from 2020.
Major emitters -- led by China, the United States, the European Union, Russia and India -- all back the deal. Russia has given verbal support even though a U.N. website has not registered a formal letter of backing, official sources say.
Names of supporters, among 194 member states, will be listed at the top of the document. Nations signing up in recent days, past an informal Feb. 1 deadline, include Algeria, Eritrea and Zambia. China and India signed up last week.
More than 60 countries have also issued domestic goals for reining in climate change by 2020. A U.N. analysis indicates these pledges will only be sufficient to limit global warming to 3 degrees Celsius (5.4F).
Following are details of national plans published on the U.N. Climate Change Secretariat website -- * shows willingness to be listed as a supporter.
INDUSTRIALISED NATIONS -- EMISSIONS CUTS BY 2020 (FROM 1990 LEVELS UNLESS STATED)
* UNITED STATES - 17 percent from 2005 levels, or 4 percent from 1990 levels.
* EUROPEAN UNION (27 nations) - 20 percent, or 30 percent if others act.
* RUSSIA - 15 to 25 percent.
* JAPAN - 25 percent as part of a "fair and effective international framework".
* CANADA - 17 percent from 2005 levels, matching U.S. goal.
* AUSTRALIA - 5 percent below 2000 levels, 25 percent if an ambitious global deal. The range is 3-23 percent below 1990.
* BELARUS - 5 to 10 percent, on condition of access to carbon trading and new technologies.
* CROATIA - 5 percent.
* KAZAKHSTAN - 15 percent.
* NEW ZEALAND - 10 to 20 percent "if there is a comprehensive global agreement".
* SWITZERLAND - 20 percent, or 30 percent if other developed nations make comparable cuts and poor nations act.
* NORWAY - 30 percent, or 40 if there is an ambitious deal.
* ICELAND - 30 percent in a joint effort with the EU.
* LIECHTENSTEIN - 20 percent, or 30 percent if others act.
* MONACO - 30 percent; aims to be carbon neutral by 2050.
DEVELOPING NATIONS' ACTIONS FOR 2020
* CHINA - Aims to cut the amount of carbon produced per unit of economic output by 40 to 45 percent from 2005 levels. This "carbon intensity" goal would let emissions keep rising, but more slowly than economic growth.
* INDIA - Aims to reduce the emissions intensity of gross domestic product by 20 to 25 percent from 2005 levels.
* BRAZIL - Aims to cut emissions by between 36.1 and 38.9 percent below "business as usual" levels with measures such as reducing deforestation, energy efficiency and more hydropower.
* SOUTH AFRICA - With the right international aid, South Africa says its emissions could peak between 2020-25, plateau for a decade and then decline in absolute terms from about 2035.
* INDONESIA - Aims to reduce emissions by 26 percent by 2020 with measures including sustainable peat management, reduced deforestation, and energy efficiency.
* MEXICO - Aims to cut greenhouse gases by up to 30 percent below "business as usual". A climate change programme from 2009-12 will also avert 51 million tonnes of carbon emissions.
* SOUTH KOREA - Aims to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent below "business as usual" projections.
* ARMENIA - Increase renewable energy output, modernise power plants, restore forests.
* BENIN - Develop public transport in Cotonou, better forest management, methane recovery from waste in big cities.
* BHUTAN - Absorbs more carbon in vegetation than it emits from burning fossil fuels; plans to stay that way.
* BOTSWANA - Shift to gas from coal. Nuclear power, renewables, biomass and carbon capture among options.
* CONGO - Improve agriculture, limit vehicles in major cities, better forestry management.
* COSTA RICA - A long-term effort to become "carbon neutral" under which any industrial emissions will be offset elsewhere, for instance by planting forests.
* ETHIOPIA - More hydropower dams, wind farms, geothermal energy, biofuels and reforestation.
* ERITREA - Improve energy conservation, efficiency, reduce deforestation, enhance soil carbon stocks.
* GABON - Increase forestry, bolster clean energy
* GEORGIA - Try to build a low-carbon economy while ensuring continued growth.
* GHANA - Switch from oil to natural gas in electricity generation, build more hydropower dams, raise the share of renewable energy to 10-20 percent of electricity by 2020.
* ISRAEL - Strive for a 20 percent cut in emissions below "business as usual" projections. Goals include getting 10 percent of electricity generation from renewable sources.
* IVORY COAST - Shift to renewable energies, better forest management and farming, improved pollution monitoring.
* JORDAN - Shift to renewable energies, upgrade railways, roads and ports. Goals include modernising military equipment.
* MACEDONIA - Improve energy efficiency, boost renewable energies, harmonise with EU energy laws.
* MADAGASCAR - Shift to hydropower for major cities, push for "large scale" reforestation across the island, improve agriculture, waste management and transport.
* MALDIVES - Achieve "carbon neutrality" by 2020.
* MARSHALL ISLANDS - Cut carbon dioxide emissions by 40 percent below 2009 levels.
* MAURITANIA - Raise forest cover to 9 percent by 2050 from 3.2 percent in 2009, boost clean energy.
* MOLDOVA - Cut emissions by "no less than 25 percent" from 1990 levels.
* MONGOLIA - Examining large-scale solar power in the Gobi desert, wind and hydropower. Improve use of coal.
* MOROCCO - Develop renewable energies such as wind, solar power, hydropower. Improve industrial efficiency.
* PAPUA NEW GUINEA - At least halve emissions per unit of economic output by 2030; become carbon neutral by 2050.
* SIERRA LEONE - Set up a National Secretariat for Climate Change, create 12 protected areas by 2015, protect forests.
* SINGAPORE - Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 16 percent below "business as usual" levels if the world agrees a strong, legally binding deal.
* SIERRA LEONE - Increase conservation efforts, ensure forest cover of at least 3.4 million hectares by 2015. Develop clean energy including biofuels from sugarcane or rice husks.
TOGO - Raise forested area to 30 percent of the country by 2050 from 7 percent in 2005; improve energy efficiency.
Other nations asking to be associated, without outlining 2020 targets: Albania, Algeria, the Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bosnia, Cambodia, Central African Republic, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Fiji, Guatemala, Guyana, Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Montenegro, Namibia, Nepal, Palau, Panama, Peru, Rwanda, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Serbia, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, Zambia.
Ecuador, Kuwait and Nauru reject association. The Philippines will support the Accord if developed nations make deep and early cuts.
(Compiled by Alister Doyle in Oslo; Editing by Janet Lawrence) Reuters